The Minimum Wage
For 2015 we have updated our advice about the Minimum Wage, to take into account new National Minimum Wage Regulations that came into force on 6th April 2015.
Anyone who is defined as a ‘Worker’ – click here (including Employees and Agency Workers) is entitled to the minimum wage (NMW) – you do not need a written contract to be eligible.
If you are an Intern or considering an Internship see our Interns article here.
If you a Care Worker please see our new article here about your entitlements to the National Minimum Wage.
There is a Government Helpline 0800 917 2368 and a website that offers more advice and information – http://www.nmw.direct.gov.uk/index.html
The minimum wage is a legal right that covers almost all workers above compulsory school leaving age. There are different minimum wage rates for different age groups of workers as follows:
- The main rate for workers aged 21 and over from 1 October 2013 £6.31 per hour. This rises to £6.50 per hour from 1st October 2014 (and to £6.70 per hour from 1st October 2015).
- The development rate for 18-20 year olds is £5.03 per hour from 1 October 2013. This rises to £5.13 per hour from 1st October 2014.
- The development rate for 16-17 years olds from 1 October 2013 is £3.72 per hour. This rises to £3.79 per hour from 1st October 2014. There are differences in the school leaving age in Scotland (to England and Wales) and this affects when the NMW should be received – see our article here for more details.
- Apprentices under 19, or aged 19 or over but in their first 12 months of apprenticeship must be paid a minimum of £2.68 per hour from 1st October 2013. This rises to £2.73 per hour from 1st October 2014. See our Guide to Apprenticeships here. Apprentices aged 19 or over who have spent a year in their apprenticeship must be paid at least the NMW rate applicable to their age.
From 1st October 2013, the National Minimum Wage will also cover Agricultural Workers for the first time – before their pay was covered by the Agricultural Wages Board. Agricultural Workers have slightly different rights to other workers, and more details are here.
In June 2008 the English High Court ruled that tips/gratuities/service charges (not paid through the employer’s payroll) cannot count towards the minimum wage and this will become law on 1st October 2009. To see a list of those excluded from the Minimum Wage click here – http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/Employees/TheNationalMinimumWage/DG_175114
For details of your pay rights during your notice period go to this link.
The National Minimum wage must be paid for all the time when you are:
- at work when required to be working (even if work is not possible because for example, machinery breaks down, materals have not arrived, work is not available)
- when you are on standby or on call time at or near your place of work
- travelling on business during normal working hours – you should be paid for all travel time in connection with your job (not to or from home to work) including travelling from one assignment to another (except if you are on a rest break), waiting for public transport connections, waiting to collect goods or start a job, travelling from work to training venues (not from home to training venues). This includes waiting to meet someone in connection with work and includes travelling for the purposes of doing ‘output’ or ‘unmeasured’ work (see below)
- training (or travelling to training) during your normal working hours, either at your normal place of work or somewhere else. This also applies to workers required to undertake training before starting work for an employer.
- For ‘salaried’ workers, if they are paid their normal salary when they are absent from work and this forms part of their contract; the time of absence counts for National Minimum wage purposes e.g. when on rest breaks, lunch breaks, holidays, sick leave or maternity leave.
For National Minimum Wage purposes there are 4 different types of work – time work, salaried hours work, output work and unmeasured work:
- If you are employed on ‘time work’ (you are paid an hourly rate in relation to the time you work and your hours may vary) – you should receive the NMW for all the time when you are at work working (excluding rest breaks); or at work and available for work; or required to be available for work on standby or on-call at or near your place of work and are working; or awake and working during ‘sleeping time’ at work (which is time when you are allowed to sleep as arranged with your Employer, who provides suitable facilities for you to do so at or near your work place), and during time spent travelling on business. At the end of 2013, an important case Whittlestone v BJP Home Support Ltd confirmed that employees who are engaged on ‘time work’ who are required to ‘sleep over’ at a specified location as part of their work are entitled to be paid the NMW for all those hours, regardless of whether their sleep was interrupted by work or not – details are in our new Guide here.
- If you are employed on ‘salaried work’ (you are paid an annual salary for set hours – in equal installments – but your hours may vary) – you should receive the NMW for all the time when you are at work working (excluding rest breaks); or at work and available for work; or required to be available for work on standby or on-call at or near your place of work and are working; or awake and working during ‘sleeping time’ at work (which is time when you are allowed to sleep as arranged with your Employer, who provides suitable facilities for you to do so at or near your work place), and time spent travelling on business.
- People who are paid on commission (who are paid entirely or partly on the basis of sales or deals made) or on output work/piecework (who are paid according to the amount they produce and do not have set hours or start/finish times) must still be paid at least the national minimum wage. These Workers do not have to paid the minimum wage for each hour worked, but they must be paid the minimum wage, on average, for the time worked in their pay ‘reference’ period. This ‘reference’ period is the period of time a worker’s wage is actually calculated, e.g. on a weekly or monthly basis, but cannot be longer than one calendar month. This includes time spent travelling on business and to other work premises (from home, if you are based at home).
- If you are employed in ‘unmeasured work’ (work that is not covered by any of the other 3 categories above – time; salaries, commission/outwork), so work, carrying out contractual duties for a flat rate, e.g. a home carer who lives and works in a clients home before having a break. Or where there are certain taks to be done but no specified hours or times when these tasks must be done. Determining what hours you should receive the NMW is difficult unless you are employed on a ‘daily average hours agreement’, which is a written agreement that determines the average number of daily hours the worker is likely to spend on their duties – and for these hours the NMW should be paid. Workers who have entered into a ‘daily hours agreement’ do not have to paid the minimum wage for each hour worked, but they must be paid the minimum wage, on average, for the time worked in their pay ‘reference’ period. This ‘reference’ period is the period of time a worker’s wage is actually calculated, e.g. on a weekly or monthly basis, but cannot be longer than one calendar month. Where a Worker has not entered into a ‘daily hours agreement’ but is employed in unmeasured work, their Employer must record the hours they work during the pay reference period and pay them for every hour worked. This includes time spent travelling on business and to other work premises (from home, if you are based at home).
- Agency workers and Homeworkers are expressly covered by the NMW.
- Apprentices receive the NMW for all their time spent working and training – where they are employed on a Contract of Apprenticeship, on a publically funded apprenticeship or working under an Apprenticeship Agreement.
- From 1st January 2011 an amendment to this law disallows Employers’ schemes that allow part of a workers pay to be replaced with expenses payments for travel which would mean this part of their pay was outside of the pay counted for national minimum wage purposes.
For information about what happens when your Employer declares ‘short-time’ working click here.
The National Minimum wage does not need to be paid for time when you are:
- if you are a genuine Volunteer or Voluntary Worker – see our article about Volunteering here
- being paid less than your normal pay, e.g. if you get half pay while on sick leave
- on any unpaid leave your Employer allows you to take
- taking industrial action
- on-call at home or at another location, but not at work and not working (unless you are actually working from home/the other location during this on-call time or are called out to attend work during this time).
- travelling between work and home or work and home (even if you return home during the working day, between ‘appointments’)
- traveling between home and work if you are going to a place that is not your normal place of employment (i.e. you do not get the NMW for any additional travelling time in these circumstances).
- a Worker who lives in their Employers home and shares in the household chores and leisure activities may not be entitled to the NMW if they are living with and being treated as part of the family (or are a member of the employers’ family) and are not paying the Employer for the provision of meals or accommodation.
N.B. Please note that the law relating to whether the NMW needs to be paid during ‘sleeping’ time whilst on-call and not working is complex and case law is changing constantly. Therefore please do not rely on our advice for your individual circumstances; it is guidance only and cannot be taken as an authoritative interpretation of the law. In 2012 an important case at the Employment Appeals Tribunal confirmed what previous case law had described – that during a sleeping night-shift, only the hours spent awake and working will count towards a workers National Minimum Wage – details are here. But at the end of 2013, an important case Whittlestone v BJP Home Support Ltd confirmed that employees who are engaged on ‘time work’ who are required to ‘sleep over’ at a specified location as part of their work are entitled to be paid the NMW for all those hours, regardless of whether their sleep was interrupted by work or not – details are in our new Guide here.
In February 2015 the Government published draft National Minimum wage Regulations – these Regulations repeal and re-enact all the law relating to the National Minimum Wage in the UK. There are not any substantive changes to the Regulations but that Government have said they intend to issue guidance to give clarify on issues such as the rules on sleeping time, travel time and the definition of rest breaks. This legislation was enacted on 6th April 2015 and you can see the Guidance for Employers and Employees here.
This Guidance says the following about Sleeping between Duties:
Employers must look at whether a worker is still subject to certain work-related responsibilities whilst asleep. A worker who is ‘working’ even though they are asleep, is entitled to the NMW for the entire time they are at work. Someone can be ‘working’ whilst asleep if, for example, there is a statutory requirement for them to be present at work and they would face disciplinary action if they left the workplace (e.g. a person working in a care home where there must be someone on the premises).
Where a worker is only available for work and is allowed to sleep (and suitable sleeping facilities are provided at the workplace) they will not be ‘working’ and the NMW is not payable. They must be paid the NMW when they are actually awake for the purposes of working. For example, someone who lives in a flat above a pub who is required to sleep there but can come and go at night as they please – there are no specific responsibilities during the night apart from the fact the premises is occupied; so they will not be paid the NMW unless they do work.
The BBC reported on 13th March 2015 that MiHomeCare staff were being paid less than minimum wage. MiHomeCare is one of the largest care providers in the UK and an interal company document seen by the BBC confirmed they had not been paying its staff the minimum wage. The BBC also reported the practice of ‘Clipping‘ which means that care appointments are scheduled back to back and there is no travel time scheduled between visits. As a result, visits are clipped, or cut short. The company were nervous about the practice of clipping being made public. You can see the BBC’s news article here.
At Summer 2014 there now appears to be 4 types of working arrangements involving sleeping that tribunals have identified (but this is always subject to change!):
- Where the worker is able to sleep and is not working at all – nothing counts as working time (examples – a driver required to stay in overnight accommodation from the end of one job to the start of the next; a pub manager required to live on the pub premises for security purposes but who is free to come and go at any time)
- Where the worker physically needs to be on the premises but may sleep if there is nothing to do – all hours count as working time (examples – a night watchman required to be on the employer’s premises during specified night hours; a care home worker who presence is required to comply with regulations)
- Where the sleep-over is part of the core duties, all hours on the premises count as working time (examples – a care worker who has worked 2 shifts of equal length – one in the day and one in the night when they could sleep; a Care Home Manager with a rent-free apartment on site is required to provide 24 hours a day on site cover)
- Where the worker is on-call, only hours the worker is awake for the purpose of working counts as working time (examples – housekeepers in sheltered accommodation whose contracts require on-call time outside core hours).
What pay should be taken into account when calculating your average hourly rate of pay (during a pay reference period):
- your total gross pay (basic salary, any bonus or commission or incentive payments that) receivedor earned in that period.
- The only ‘benefit in kind’ that can be taken into account in NMW calculations is where your Employer provides you with accommodation. The NMW may be ‘offset’ by some of your accommodations value. From October 2014 this is £5.08 per day. For more details about how this works please see the Direct Gov page here.
- Benefits in kind that do not count towards the NMW calculation include meals, fuel, car allowances, employers contributions to pension schemes, medical insurance, child care vouchers, luncheon vouchers.
- Salary sacrifice schemes (such as Childcare vouchers) are excluded from the calculation as are loans and salary advances, pension payments and redundancy payments.
- Any premiums that are paid for overtime or shift work, weekend or bank-holiday working, or on-call/sleep-in shifts do generally NOT count towards calculating your salary for the NMW.
- Tips, service charges, cover charges and gratuities do not count.
- Repayment of expenses is not included in the calculation.
- Expenses for travel to a temporary workplace are not included.
- Special allowances paid above standard pay, e.g. for working in dangerous conditions, working unsocial hours, geographical payments (i.e. London Weighting), for performing special duties do not count (unless they are consolidated into the workers standard pay or they are related to the worker’s normal duties).
The Government run a Pay and Work Rights Helpline which can advise you about the NMW – on 0800 917 2368 – and you can report NMW abuses to them on this number.
Your Employer must keep records that show they have paid the NMW for 3 years, and you have the right to inspect these records if you have reasonable grounds to believe you have not been paid the NMW; you may complain to an Employment Tribunal if you are not allowed to see these records.
Workers also have a right not to be subjected to any detriment caused by an act of their Employer because the worker had taken action to enforce their statutory right to be paid the NMW.
The National Minimum Wage Regulations are enforced by the HMRC who have compliance and enforcement officers and can prosecute Employers for not abiding by the NMW. From February 2014 the fines for Employers who do not pay their workers the national minimum wage increase from £5,000 up to £20,000. The Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act (approved by Pariament in March 2015) will allow for the maximum £20,000 penalty for non-payment to apply for each worker who has not been paid the NMW (not just one fine per non-compliance notice). No date has yet been given for when this law will implemented,
In January 2015, in a programme entitled Low Pay Britain, Channel 4’s Dispatches reported on tax-avoiding practices by employment agencies and umbrella companies. The programme also highlighted methods used by agencies to ignore the provisions of the Agency Workers Regulations and ways to avoid paying the National Minimum Wage – you can read the details here.
Overtime: (updated 2014)
- There is no legal right to pay for working extra hours.
- There is no legal right to extra pay for working extra hours.
- However, if your contract guarantees paid overtime then you should be paid for this. If your contract does not mention the exact rate to be paid then a ‘reasonable’ rate for the overtime should be paid. If your contract does not mention a right to be paid for overtime then there is no such right to be paid, unless an oral promise has been made.
- Your average pay must not be below the minimum wage (above).
- Some Employers may offer you ‘time off in lieu’ instead of pay for overtime.
- Overtime worked may or may not be taken into account when calculating holiday pay (see our Working Time Regulations Guide for more information) or paid maternity, paternity or adoption leave – it will depend whether overtime is specified in your contract of employment. However, see our 2014 article about calculating holiday pay including overtime here as things are changing.
- You only need to work overtime if your contact includes it and you should not work more than 48 hours per week (see Working Time Regulations Guide).
- Your Employer cannot stop you working overtime if your contract guarantees it.
- There are special rules for Sunday working – see our Workline guide and this Direct Gov page.
For details on Equal Pay please see our Guide to the Equality Act 2010 here.
Unpaid Work Experience/Interns:
The minimum wage legislation can make unpaid work experience/internships a grey area, as anyone defined as a ‘worker’ is entitled to a minimum wage. Government guidelines say that if someone is taken on solely as a ‘volunteer’ for the reason of giving them skills/training, rather than in a normal employee-employer relationship, then this can be unpaid – as long as they have no set hours, are under no obligation to perform the work and can come and go freely.
- For further details about Internships/work experience and whether they should be paid or not see our Interns article here.
- Students doing work experience as part of a higher or further education course are not entitled to the minimum wage if the work experience they undertake is for under a years duration.
- Skillset have published guidelines for work experience placements in the TV industry; more details of how the national minimum wage applies (and other useful information for employers and those on work experience placements) is contained in these guidelines at Annex A: http://www.skillset.org/uploads/pdf/asset_9268.pdf?1
- ACAS, Skillset and PACT recommend that unpaid work experience should never be longer than for four weeks.
Workers under 18 – For more useful information look at www.bbc.co.uk/radio1
If you are an Employer and need ongoing professional help with any staff/freelance issues, or a Contractor/Freelancer/Employee with a complicated employment related problem, then talk to Lesley at The HR Kiosk – a Human Resources Consultancy for small businesses – our fees are low to reflect the pressures on small businesses and you can hire us for as much time as you need.
Please note that the advice given on this website and by our Advisors is guidance only and cannot be taken as an authoritative or current interpretation of the law. It can also not be seen as specific advice for individual cases. Please also note that there are differences in legislation in Northern Ireland.