A P11D is a form that details expenses and benefits provided to your employees (including yourself, if you’re a limited company director).
If confusing form names was an olympic event, HMRC would surely be a gold medalist. PAYE forms, with names such as P45, P60 and P11D, are especially baffling. The purpose of these forms is to tell HMRC everything they need to know about your income, expenses and allowances.
In this post, we take a closer look at the P11D form; what’s on it, when you need to file it, and what will happen if you don’t.
If you’re a Crunch client, your client manager will make sure you stay on top of your P11D filing, but it’s always good to understand what you’re signing.
Benefits in kind
P11D forms are designed to report on something called benefits in kind. These are items or services which you may receive from your company in addition to your salary, such as private healthcare, interest-free loans (to pay for train season tickets, for example) or a company car. The annual P11D form allows you to report these items to HMRC on your annual Self Assessment return.
As benefits in kind effectively increase your salary, there may be National Insurance contributions to be paid on them (although it’s important to note these contributions will be paid by the company, not the individual).
Who needs to file a P11D?
P11Ds are filed by the employer, not the employee – although for many freelancers and contractors, that is one and the same.
When do I need to file a P11D?
Helpfully, P11D filings are not dependent on your company year, and must all be filed by 6th July following the tax year in question. So, for example, your P11D for the tax year running April 2017 to April 2018 must be filed by 6th July 2018.
What needs to be included in a P11D?
Generally speaking, items the company pays for that the employee benefits from need to be included on the P11D form. Expenses and benefits that need to be recorded include:
- Company cars;
- Health insurance;
- Assets provided to an employee that have significant personal use;
- Self Assessment fees paid by company;
- Non-business travel expenses;
- Non-business entertainment expenses.
Recent changes to P11D
Prior to April 2016, expenses could be omitted from P11D forms by obtaining a special dispensation from HMRC.
This has now been replaced by an exemption system, whereby the majority of business expenses incurred personally by company employees no longer need to be recorded on a P11D. Exempt expenses include:
- Travel (including subsistence costs associated business travel);
- Business entertainment expenses;
- Credit cards used for business purposes;
- Fees and subscriptions.
As with most tax filings, HMRC is ready and waiting with the penalty hammer should you file late or incorrectly. If you miss the deadline of 6th July (either online or on paper), you won’t incur penalties straight away – you have about a fortnight to put things right and file. Should July 19th come and go and your P11D is still nowhere to be seen, your company (not you personally) will incur fines of £100 per month (or part month) per 50 employees.
If you still haven’t filed by November, HMRC will send you a reminder, along with details of all the penalties you’ve accrued up until then. If your P11D is incorrect, you could also face fines – but only if HMRC believes you deserve them.
If your mistake was genuine and HMRC believes you took reasonable care before filing, you may not face any fines. However, penalties of 30%, 70% or 100% of the owed tax can be applied if HMRC believe you acted carelessly, deliberately misled them or attempted to conceal your true liabilities.
Directors’ Loan Accounts
If your Directors’ Loan Account is overdrawn when you file your P11D form, you’ll not only attract interest on the overdrawn amount, but a National Insurance charge on that interest. Keep a close eye on your Director’s Loan Account throughout the year to make sure you can settle the overdrawn amount before the end of the year.
Home phone usage
Cases where an employee has made calls from their home telephone or personal mobile and the company has repaid the expense are frequently forgotten. Be sure to keep a note of all your business phone usage and make sure every call is included. Getting a company mobile phone is strongly recommended to avoid any confusion.
Neglect / forgetfulness
As with all tax filings, the quality of your P11D is only as good as the data used to complete it. Try to keep your records up to date, reconcile your accounts often and address any problems early. If you stay on top of your accounts, filing your P11D will be a walk in the park.
What is a P11D(b)?
On HMRC’s website, you will sometimes see form P11D(b) referenced. A P11D(b) is a form employers must submit summarising the individual P11D forms they’ve completed for their employees.